Archive for the ‘Early Childhood Education’ Category
This week the Ultimate Block Party was featured in the New York Times’ article, “Effort to Restore Children’s Play Gains Momentum.” The article reveals that the culture of play is vanishing in society and being replaced with television, organized after school activities, and academic prep. Playtime has lost value in our culture, and scientists, psychologists, educators, and others are trying to change this perception through community outreach activities like the Ultimate Block Party. Click here to read more…
Have you ever been stumped on a problem and later on you had the “aha!” moment when you are watching TV, playing around, or even taking a shower? What ignited that moment of insight?
According to an article in the New York Times this week, new neuroscience research shows positive mood may prep the mind for the “aha moment” when we are faced with a tough problem. How? The research suggests that a positive mood may increase attention, perhaps on a subconscious level, so that we can pick up important details that are often overlooked. So before your next big project maybe you should watch a comedy show or tell a good joke!
Have you noticed that children are highly creative? Perhaps the positive mood incurred from playful experiences may also promote creative problem solving. Evidence suggests that children who play generate more creative solutions on subsequent tasks compared to those who do not (Pepler & Ross, 1981; Smith & Dutton, 1979; for a review, see Hughes, 1999). Some theorists suggest that children and great innovators alike engage in “bricolage,” a playful attitude that allows them to openly tinker, explore, collaborate, make mistakes, and rebuild their way to discovery. It is this mindset, scholars suggest, that makes play a powerful informal learning experience, one that naturally engages processes of experimentation and imagination—and one that is necessary for creative innovation in the ‘knowledge age’ (Brown, 2010; Papert, 1994).
Carey, B. (2010, December 7). Tracing the Spark of Creative Problem-Solving. New York Times.
Interested in learning more?
Brown, J. (2008, October). Tinkering as a mode of knowledge production in the digital age. Presentation at the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Stanford, CA.
Hughes, F.P. (1999). Play, creativity, and problem-solving.
Papert, S. (1994). The children’s machine: rethinking school in the age of the computer. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Pepler, D.J. & Ross, H.S. (1981). The effects of play on convergent and divergent problem solving. Child Development, 52, 1202-1210.
Smith P.K. & Dutton, S. (1979). Play and training in direct and innovative problem solving. Child Development, 50, 830-836.
This blog was written by Dr. Kelly Fisher, Postdoctoral Fellow at Temple University.
“One of the saddest days of my life was when my mother told me ‘Superman’ did not exist…She thought I was crying because its like Santa Clause is not real. I was crying because no one was coming with enough power to save us,”
— Geoffrey Canada, Waiting for Superman
When America faces perilous times, children often wonder, “Where is Superman?” Day after day, they may sit, staring out their window, waiting for their superhero to come and save the day. The new documentary, Waiting for Superman, provides a telling account of America’s failing public education system and its detrimental effects on our children. Director David Guggenheim reveals a world of deteriorating schools, questionable teacher quality, and an educational infrastructure bound in red tape that sets many children on an inescapable path (e.g. the ‘dropout factories’).
So… where is Superman? For many, the documentary suggests, Superman resides in charter schools—and entry is only possible with a winning lottery ticket; however, the answer is much more complex. It is not just a matter of well-meaning, high quality teachers and longer school days, it is a matter of community (see Harlem Children Zone’s rebuilding a community perspective).
Our approach? Superman lives in all of us. We aim to start early and empower the parents, guardians, and children by putting the information in their hands. Children spend approximately 79% of their waking hours outside of school—suggesting you have an integral part of children’s learning and development—and you have the power for change.
This blog was written by Dr. Kelly Fisher, Postdoctoral Fellow at Temple University.
“Enforced exercise does no harm to the body, but enforced learning will not stay in the mind. So avoid compulsion, and let your children’s lessons take the form of play” –Plato (The Republic, vii, 536, in Cornford, 1945).
In this month’s Child Development issue, researchers examined how classroom activities promote learning on certain school readiness measures, like vocabulary, letter-naming, and number-naming. In a study of over 2,700 pre-Kindergarten children, the res earchers compared kids that were mostly engaged in free play (the teacher didn’t direct or engage with the children), individual instruction (the teacher instructed an individual child who then worked on projects independently), group instruction (the teacher directly instructed a group of students), and scaffolded learning (the teacher interacted directly with children and helped them to go slightly beyond the level of play that they were able to achieve on their own).
So—what did they find? Children who spent most of their time engaged in free play showed the smallest gains over the course of the year while children in instructional activities exhibited the greatest gains. This is consistent with other studies— and it is not surprising—if a child has no one pointing them in the right direction and children’s activities/toys are not assembled in a way that promotes discovery, it will be difficult to impossible to make the same academic gains as children who have help. Having said that, direct instruction is NOT the only alternative….
Guided play: The middle ground.
Guided play represents the midpoint between free play and direct instructional methods—blending curricular goals and play. How is this accomplished? A teacher embeds materials into play environments and then helps guide children’s discovery and exploration of new information. Teachers guide learning in a variety of ways—including modeling, co-playing, asking questions during play, and creating games/play activities. When we look closer at this study, we see that the scaffolded learning group is similar to guided play. In fact, the scaffolded group had similar learning outcomes to those receiving instruction! This coincides with the growing body of research that shows guided play is stronger than other direct instruction methods!
Here are some take-home messages to think about:
(1) “Guided play” – an instructional method. Guided play is a great method to engage children in a fun, exciting way while fostering learning goals and key skills! Create fun games and activities that help children learn new things and practice their new skills!!
(2) Not all “academic readiness skills” are equal. Studies show free play and guided play activities promote a variety of social, physical, and ‘thinking’ skills, while direct instruction narrowly promotes curricular content. Remember the 6 C’s you saw at the Ultimate Block Party? As children played with partners and adults—they fostered collaboration, communication, creative innovation, content knowledge, confidence, and critical thinking! The combination of these skills is just as important as learning ABC’s and numbers for later success! So free- and guided-play are key (and one should not be emphasized over another)!
(3) Look at the BIG picture. Over the last fifty years, researchers have compared preschool models and found play-based practices have long-term, positive impacts on children’s health, social skills, motivation to learn, and academic achievement. While direct instruction models have sometimes shown short-term academic gains over play-based practices, these findings often fade over time, and sometimes result in negative social outcomes (e.g., emotional issues, attention problems, etc). Children must be able to focus, concentrate, converse and respect others, and self-regulate their behaviors/emotions— all of which are developed through free- and guided-play.
(4) Learning does not start/stop with school. Your children only spend about 14% of their day in school, so YOU have an active role in helping your child learn. Try some guided play techniques at home! Here are some examples:
- “I Spy Shapes!” – Ask your child to find all of the different types of rectangles are in the room. Help her ‘discover’ the shape properties—How are they different? How are they similar?
- “Grocery Store Challenge” – On your next trip to the grocery store, ask your child math-related questions like “If I eat an apple, how many do I have left?”, “How many letter A’s do you see on this box of cereal?,” “How many pieces of gum can I get with a dollar?”
- “Sing-A-long” – Make up funny songs with your children using new vocabulary words or math concepts. Here are some examples.
- “Story-board learning” – Ask children to create a story board using their new knowledge. For example, if the children learned about different seasons, ask your child to draw four pictures of him playing during those seasons. He can then act out the story for you!
- Check out a children’s museum in your area. You will see playful learning materialize before your eyes! Not sure where one is? Find one here!
Chien, N. C., Howes, C., Burchinal, M., Pianta, R. C., Ritchie, S., Bryant, D. M., et al. (2010). Children’s classroom engagement and school readiness gains in prekindergarten. Child Development, 81, 1534-1549.
Interested in Learning More?
Fisher, K., Hirsh-Pasek, K., Golinkoff, R.M., Berk, L., & Singer, D. (2010, in press). Playing around in school: Implications for learning and educational policy. In A. Pellegrini (Ed), Handbook of the Development of Play. Oxford University Press.
Hirsh-Pasek, K., Golinkoff, R., Berk, L., & Singer, D. (2008). A Manifesto for playful learning in preschool: Presenting the scientific evidence. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Marcon, R. (1999). Differential impact of preschool models on development and early learning of inner-city children: A three cohort study. Developmental Psychology, 35, 358-375.
Stipek, D., Daniels, D., Galluzzo, D., Millburn, S., & Salmon, J. M. (1998). Good beginnings: What difference does the program make in preparing young children for school. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 19, 41-66.
Golbeck, S.L. (2001). Instructional models for early childhood: In search of a child regulated/teacher-guided pedagogy. In S.L. Golbeck (Ed.), Psychological perspectives on early childhood education: Reframing dilemmas in research and practice (pp. 3 – 29). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Pellegrini, A. (2005). Recess: Its role in education and development. Mahwah, NJ: Psychology Press.
This blog was written by Dr. Kelly Fisher, Postdoctoral Fellow at Temple University, and Dr. Jennifer Zosh, Assistant Professor at Pennsylvania State University, Brandywine
What is the capital of Pennsylvania? Who is the President of the United States? What are mitochondria? Where are the everglades? These are all questions that our children face every day when they go into the classroom or talk with adults. And it makes sense – we want our children to have knowledge about the facts of the world. But does memorizing facts lead to children becoming doctors, engineers, or scientists? The answer to this question may
“The Creativity Crisis” appeared in Newsweek over the summer and makes a strong case for emphasizing play and creativity over facts and IQ scores. The authors of the article highlight the fact that children’s scores on tests of creativity have FALLEN over the past two decades even though they had been rising steadily for decades. And these creativity scores do a much better job of predicting lifetime creative accomplishment than childhood IQ scores. Our children are becoming less creative and less flexible – certainly a worry for today’s parents and for tomorrow’s future!
But don’t despair – creativity is not something that today’s kids just don’t have. Instead, we can help foster creativity, ingenuity, flexibility, and a love of learning in children through play! For instance, at the Ultimate Block Party, we will give your children the opportunity o problem-solve and work with new friends to create a new skyscraper or a block tower. They will be able to create their own art and use everyday materials to create new structures. They can practice how to express their feelings and emotions while pretending they are chefs or learning how to ‘clown around.’ The opportunities for your child to learn how to be creative are endless and the Ultimate Block Party aims to show you just a few ways that we can reverse this “Creativity Crisis.” We look forward to seeing you soon!
This blog was written by Dr. Jennifer Zosh, Assistant Professor at Pennsylvania State University, Brandywine.
How many children report having no time for play? How many schools have NO recess? In the last 20 years, how many HOURS of play per week have children lost?
The surprising (and disheartening!) answers to these questions are highlighted in this video on the Ultimate Block Party’s YouTube channel. But don’t despair! Not only will you and your child have a chance to play on October 3 in Central Park and explore the wonders and benefits of play with other families, friends, and experts, but the Ultimate Block Party is just the first step in a national and international movement to bring play back to childhood. Take a look at our video to learn some surprising facts but also comment on this blog and answer the question our experts will be answering at the event – How did YOU play when you were young? How did it shape who you became?
Posted September 24, 2010on:
We are pleased to announce that mother of 3 and esteemed actress, Sarah Jessica Parker, has agreed to be a special spokesperson for the Ultimate Block Party!
We have been roaming the streets asking moms and dads, celebrities and politicians, lawyers and musicians how they played when they were kids and how this shaped who they became. Here is what Sarah Jessica Parker had to say….
“I am one of 8 children. I grew up in a home filled with chaos. How could it be otherwise? And I think early on we were both encouraged and taught to use our imaginations. And our legs. Our imaginations were used for story telling, making games up, playing with dolls and creating lives for them, listening to records of comedians and broadway shows, roller skating in the house during long, cold midwestern winters and deeply enjoying some of the finer board games such as masterpiece, milles bourne, monopoly and the game of life. On days where weather cooperated we spent hours and hours outdoors making massive piles of leaves, playing kick the can, climbing trees, rolling down hills, riding tricycles then bikes and simply roaming around the neighborhood in packs of children from 6 years to the “big kid” age of 12 and 13 years old.
We learned to compete, lose, argue, solve conflicts, create teams and never grow bored. We barely remembered we were hungry. We learned to win like the older kids and how to take care of the younger ones. We schemed, got hurt, laughed, cried and eventually when the street lights went on, reluctantly said goodbye and made our way home.
Upon reflection, I’m not surprised I ended up choosing my work. And all I learned the easy and hard way has been enormously helpful in pursuing my adult work. Being creative, collaborative, resourceful, responsible, accountable and excited. I realize those are adjectives that describe how I learned to play, during the most important and influential years of my life.”
—Sarah Jessica Parker, Actress and Mother
Talent, Interests, Knowledge, and Skills—Begin with Child’s Play
Did you ever wonder where all of Sarah Jessica Parker’s talent came from? How she helps us to imagine worlds that don’t actually exist and get caught up in story play that lasts for years? This amazing mother and actress credits play! As you can see from her quote, she learned firsthand how play (and not flashcards, forced lessons, or guilt-tripped tutoring!) helped her practice the skills that have allowed her to succeed. In a house full of children and chaos, she “played her way” to becoming the mother and actress that she is today!
But how does play shape us? As children play, there’s a lot of learning going on underneath. Research shows that when children engage in imaginative play, like pretending to be a fairy princess in a far-away land, they learn how to develop a storyline, role-play, cooperate with others, regulate their attention, and work their creative juices! And what about when they get those board games out? They practice counting, logic, and cooperation! When we peer beneath the surface of play, we see the foundations of the future!
How Did Play Shape YOU?
All adults, celebrities or not, used to be kids! Think about it and feel free to add your answers on our Ultimate Block Party facebook page! Once you give yourself the time and space to answer, you will probably see the power of play in an entirely different light!
“Play for Tomorrow” at the Ultimate Block Party!
By participating in the Ultimate Block Party and taking the lessons you learned home with you, you will be helping to give your child the tools to become the world’s next best actress, actor, mother, father, scientist, teacher, doctor, lawyer, engineer, therapist, nurse, politician, manager, or even president!
Interested in Learning More?
You can visit the play = learning website.
Or, check out some published findings!
Christie, J., & Roskos, K. (2009).Play’s potential in early literacy development. Encyclopedia of Early Childhood Development.
Ginsburg, H., Lee, J.S., Boyd, J. (2008). Mathematics education for young children: What it is and how to promote it. SRCD Social Policy Report: Giving Child and Youth Development Knowledge Away, XXII.
Ramani, G, & Siegler, R. (2008). Promoting broad and stable improvements in low-income children’s numerical knowledge through playing number board games. Child Development, 79, 375 – 394.
Singer, D., Golinkoff, R. M., & Hirsh-Pasek, K. (Eds.) (2008). Play = learning: How play motivates and enhances children’s cognitive and spcio-emotional growth. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Singer, D., & Singer, J. (1992). The house of make believe: Children’s play and the developing imagination. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
This blog was written by Dr. Jennifer Zosh, Assistant Professor at Pennsylvania State University, Brandywine, and Dr. Kelly Fisher, Postdoctoral Fellow at Temple University.